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Number: 1463
Continent: Africa
Region: East
Place Names: Kilimanjaro, Usambara, Ruwanda,
Year of Origin: 1893
Title: Provisorische Ubersichts Skizze von Dr. Oscar Baumann's Reisen in Ostafrika 1892-1893
Language: German
Publish Origin: Berlin
Height: 14.8
Width: 36.2
Units: centimeters
Size Class.: Medium
Scale: 1 : 3,000,000
Color Type: No Color
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Cartographer: Oscar Baumann
Engraver: C. L. Keller
Publisher: Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin
Other Contributors:
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Notes: Kainbacher and Eigl; Baumanns book, "Usambara und seine Nachbargebiete. Allgemeine Darstellung des nordöstlichen Deutsch-Ostafrika und seiner Bewohner auf Grund einer im Auftrage der Deutsch-Ostafrikanischen Gesellschaft im Jahre 1890 ausgeführten Reise" published in 1891 was the most comprehensive and important work on Usambara. After participating in Hans Meyer's 1888 expedition to Usambara, Baumann (1864-99) was asked by the German East African Society to make a further expedition to East Africa in order to gather more detailed information on Usambara and its neigbouring territories. The results of his work shows that Baumann may be called the scientific writer of Usambara, a region about which no systematic research has been done or published so far. (transl. from Henze); Baumann's 1894 book "Durch Massailand zur Nilquelle. Reisen und Forschungen der Massai-Expedition des deutschen Antisklaverei-Komite in den Jahren 1891-1893" started this expedition in Tanga and crossed the country of the Massai. He discovered Lake Manyara and Lake Eiassi. From there, he proceeded to Lake Victoria and further to the Kagera or Alexander-Nile, which he followed to its source. Via Lake Tanganjika he returned to Pangani at the African east coast. 200 of the 4000 kilometers he covered were in then unexplored regions, excellent maps were made and an enormous wealth of geographical and ethnographic material was gathered. [- Henze I, 200 ff., Hess/Coger]; This was a detailed and extremely well illustrated account of an expedition through Maasai (Masai) country in what is now northern Tanzania to the sources of the Nile and the kingdoms of Ruanda and Northern Burundi in the years 1891 to 1893, supported by the German anti-slavery committee and dedicated to the memory of John Hanning Speke (1827-1864). Baumann describes the people, languages, wildlife (including molluscs and insects), plants (with special emphasis on those cultivated by the natives), topography and geology of the region, including detailed information on the slave trade, poignant accounts of the victims of droughts and plagues, his discovery of and descent into the extraordinary Ngorongoro Crater, which formed a natural wildlife refuge, and his tracing of the Kagera or Alexander Nile to its source. Avoiding the sensationalism of Stanley?s Through the Dark Continent, published sixteen years earlier, he blends his obvious enthusiasm with his scientific concern for accurate facts to make an exciting story full of valuable information.The photogravure plates of the Maasai and other natives (by Meisenbach, Riffarth & Co. in Berlin), and collotype plates of shells and human skulls are of the highest quality: the former give the impression of original ink-wash drawings (two serving as frontispieces to the two parts are printed on fine thin paper and mounted on thicker leaves), while the latter are extremely fine-grained, so that they reproduce every detail of the original photographs. The chromolithographed map ("Karte des Forschungsgebietes der Massai-Expedition des deutschen Antisklaverei-Komite"), produced for the book from Baumann?s data by Bruno Hassenstein and chromolithographed by Hermann Keil in Gotha, shows what is now the northern half of Tanzania, with parts of lakes Victoria and Tanganyika, the Serengeti, Mount Kilimanjaro (first climbed in 1889), "Duvai" (Olduvai Gorge, where Louis and Mary Leakey astounded the world with their discoveries of early man more than a half century later), and Ngorongoro Crater and lakes Eyasi, Manyara and Ndutu, discovered by Baumann on this expedition. It was the first map of this region to be based on direct observation and measurement, and shows very detailed topographic information, the border between the German and English regions, the route of the expedition in red, and even Baumann?s proposed 750 kilometre railway line from the coast at Tanga to Lake Victoria (never built). Populated, unpopulated but fertile, and steppe regions are colour coded, and two inset maps of the same region on a smaller scale present geological and ethnographic data. The former includes a profile, and the latter colour codes the regions for the various languages and ethnic groups, including the Maasai, Watussi and Zulu.This was the third and most important East African expedition of the Viennese Baumann (1864-1899), made thirty-five years after Burton and Speke first attempted to reach the source of the Nile. Though he was only thirty when he published the book, it was highly acclaimed by scholars of his day and remains an essential and one of the most reliable sources for East Africa before it fell under the influence of the European colonial powers. Baumann died of an infection five years later.,[Asher].
Last updated: Nov 6, 2008