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Number: 2330
Continent: Africa
Region: North
Place Names: Morocco
Year of Origin: 1848
Title: Carte de l'Empire de Maroc indiquant les communications principales, la division en gouvernemens et la repartition de la population des diverses races sur le sol ainsi que l'etat d'obeissance des tribus qui sont comptees comme faisant partie de l'Empire de Maroc par le capitaine d'Etat-Major Beaudouin. Reduite et gravee au Depot General de la guerre.
Sub-Title:
Language: French
Publish Origin: Paris
Height: 88.5
Width: 113.0
Units: centimeters
Size Class.: Large
Scale:
Color Type: No Color
Images of this map are not yet available.
Cartographer: Louis - Jules Beaudouin
Engraver:
Publisher: Kaeppelin
Other Contributors:
Northernmost Latitude:
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Easternmost Longitude:
Notes: [PENDING Dasa Pahor, Alex Johnson source] Louis-Jules BEAUDOUIN (1819 - 1878). Paris: Kaeppelin et Cie, 1848; Lithograph, dissected into 32 sections and mounted upon original linen, with late 1870s pastedown printed map seller's advertisements of 'Edward Stanford' to outer-verso panels (88.5 x 113 cm (35 x 44.5 inches). The foundational map of the modern cartography of Morocco, a stellar, very large format, separately issued work created by the desert warrior Louis-Jules Beaudouin, predicated upon masterly surveys and reconnaissance undertaken by French military expeditions in the wake of the First Franco-Moroccan War, it remained the authoritative map of the country used by military commanders, diplomats, explorers and academics for decades. This work was the authoritative general map of Morocco used by military commanders, diplomats, explorers and academics for most of the second half of the 19th century, a critical period when the country came ever further into France's imperialist crosshairs. It was made by Louis - Jules Beaudouin, a master desert warrior and reconnaissance specialist who compiled the map from his own expeditions and the best existing sources, producing a work of peerless accuracy and detail that was the first general printed map of Morocco that could be reliably used to guide military operations. The map showcases a highly developed image of Morocco, with its outlines accurately delineated, the mountain ranges (notably the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains) well defined by hachures, while the various oases that dot the Sahara beyond are well depicted. The map labels all cities and towns of note (indicating residences of the Moroccan sultan, regional capitals, and Spanish outposts), while various roads, including those used by the sultan for both military and ceremonial purpose are delineated, while numerous caravan routes crossing the mountains into the Sahara are depicted. The map also features several notes on the political and physical nature of the country. The map is rare. We can trace 6 institutional examples, held by the Bibliotheque nationale de France; Wurttembergische Landesbibliothek (Stuttgart); Museum national d'histoire naturelle (Paris); Bibliotheque de Chambery (Annecy, France); Biblioteca Nacional de Espana; and the University of Chicago Library. Moreover, we are aware of 2 other examples as appearing on the market over the last generation. Louis-Jules Baudouin, the First Franco-Moroccan War and the Genesis of the Modern Mapping of Morocco The birth of modern Morocco occurred in 1631, with the establishment of the Alaouite Dynasty, that over the coming decades succeeded in uniting the country into a unitary state for the first time in generations. Over the succeeding two centuries, the Alaouites managed to preserve Morocco's sovereignty in the face of internal dissent and foreign interference, many by Spain and the Ottoman Empire. Notably, in 1777, Morocco became the first foreign power to recognize the independence of the Unites States of America, while the Moroccan American Friendship Treaty (1786) stands today as the United States' oldest unbroken amicable accord. However, the French conquest of Algeria (1830-47) hailed a new and perilous era for Morocco. While France did not (yet) desire to conquer Morocco, the Alaouite regime found it increasingly difficult not to be drawn into the conflict in which intertribal alliances crossed the porous Moroccan-Algerian frontier. Beginning in 1840, the legendary Algerian resistance fighter Emir Abdelkader (1808-83) and thousands of his supporters took refuge in Morocco, while using it as a base to attack the French forces in Algeria. While the Moroccan sultan, Abd al-Rahman, was aware that this risked placing his country in danger of French reprisals, Abdelkader?s ties to key Moroccan powerbrokers were so strong that it proved nigh impossible to expel the Algerian emir or curb his activities. Thus, France's continual diplomatic warnings fell on deaf ears. France attacked Morocco during the First Franco-Moroccan War (August 6 to September 10, 1844), a brief but sharp conflict, whereby France struck Moroccan positions at Tangiers and Mogador, while engaging in a battle at Isly (near the Algerian border). Employing their superior technology, France bested the Moroccans in each of these showdowns, forcing Abd al-Rahman to sign the Treaty of Tangiers (1844), whereby he officially recognized France as the master of Algeria, and by implication classifying Abdelkader as a 'rebel'. The Alaouites spent the next three years battling Abdelkader's forces for control of Morocco, at times only barely hanging on to the throne. However, facing both intense French and Moroccan pressure, Abdelkader surrendered to French forces in 1847, bringing relative peace to the greater region. ***Turning to cartography, during the war the French realized that apart from the immediate coastal areas, European knowledge of Morocco's vast interior, which was dominated by the Atlas Mountains and the deserts, was rudimentary. While the basis locations of major cities, towns, mountains and oasis could be plotted with basic planimetric accuracy, the level of geographic awareness was not adequate to confidently guide army operations. Emilien Renou's Carte de l'Empire de Maroc / Aout 1844 (Paris, 1844), made in the immediate wake of the war, perfectly represented the current state of European cartographic knowledge of Morocco. Please see an image of the map, courtesy of the Bibliotheque nationale de France: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b530985013 As France knew that it would have ongoing involvement in Morocco, the acquisition of far more detailed and accurate geographical information was a priority. During the period from the end of the First Franco-Moroccan War to Abdelkader's surrender in December 1847, French military missions traversed Moroccan territory in order to 'assist' the Alouite regime in defeating the Algerian rebels. This allowed them to reconnoiter and survey Morocco, with special attention to its major cities, fortifications, oases and transportation corridors. Enter Louis-Jules Baudouin (1819 ? 1878), an immensely talented cartographer and master at desert warfare, who would retire with rank of Brigadier General, after an active career in Algeria and Morocco spanning over 30 years. A native of the Eure Department of Northern France, he graduated near the top of his class at the prestigious St. Cyr Military Academy. In 1841, he joined the Chasseurs d'Afrique, cavalry unit fighting in Algeria, where he soon distinguished himself for his extraordinary skill in applying counter-guerilla tactics against Abdelkader's forces. In 1843, he was promoted to captain and was made an officer of the Legion d'Honneur for his bravery during operations in Oran Province. During the First Franco-Moroccan War, he fought with distinction at the Battle of Isly, gaining high praise from the Commander-in-Chief of the French forces in North Africa, General Bugeaud. While Renou's map of Morocco marked a stellar starting point, Bugeaud and his general staff were in dire need an accurate and detailed map of the country and the bordering regions of Algeria, as Adbelkader's ongoing rebellion compelled them to mount operations across the Moroccan frontier. While Baudouin was not an engineer or professional cartographer, he proved remarkably adept at making highly accurate reconnaissance surveys and editing complex sources to produce fabulous maps. This led to his appointment to create the improved sequel to Renou's work. Baudouin resigned from the Chasseurs to head a special topographical unit to conduct reconnaissance surveys, particularly of Morocco's main transportation routes and oases, while being given unfettered access to the best existing manuscripts in the possession of the French forces, of which a couple major sources are listed below the title, including documents supplied by the French diplomatic mission in Tangiers, as well as recent mapping of the Touat oases (today deep on Algeria, but then controlled by Morocco), which anchored the one good trans-Saharan travel corridor between Algiers and Timbuktu. The result was the present map, a real tour de force, which upon comparison with the Renou map shows a dramatic improvement in the level of detail and accuracy in the depiction of Morocco. The Rif (Northern Morocco) is mapped with amazing precision, while the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains are well defined for the first time, as the major caravan routes crossing over into the Sahara are superbly detailed. Unlike the Renou map, which was only fit for broad strategic planning, Baudouin's map could serve as a reliable guide for operational planning in the active theatre. Baudouin's map was published in Paris in 1848 on the orders of the French military mapping office, the Depot General de la guerre. Its revolutionary nature was immediately recognized, and it remained the authoritative map of Morocco for at least the next 35, used variously by military commanders, diplomats, explorers, academics, and even German agents-provocateurs, for decades. The fact that the present example of the map was still being sold in the late 1870s in London by the leading firm of Edward Stanford, is testament to its enduring authority. References: Bibliotheque nationale de France, departement Cartes et plans, GE C-9174; University of Chicago Library: G8230 1848 .B4; Bulletin de la Soci??de g?graphie, 3ieme ser., tom. 11 (1849), p. 389; Aurelia DUSSERRE, 'Explorateurs allemands et geographie fran?ise: rivalites et reconnaissances au Maroc (1860-1910), in Ahcene Abdelfettah. Alain Messaoudi and Daniel Nordman (eds.), Savoirs d'Allemagne en Afrique du Nord, XVIIIe-XXe siecle (Paris, 2012), p. 192; Andr?MICHARD, Omar SADDIQI, Ahmed CHALOUAN and Dominique Frizon de LAMOTTE (eds.), Continental Evolution: The Geology of Morocco: Structure, Stratigraphy, and Tectonics of the Africa-Atlantic-Mediterranean Triple Junction (2008), p. 381; Rosemary A. PETERS-HILL, Charles de Foucauld's Reconnaissance au Maroc, 1883-1884: A Critical Edition in English (2020), n.p. Cf. (re: Beaudouin's biography:) Narcisse FAUCON, Le livre d'or de l'Algerie: histoire politique, militaire, administrative; eeveenements et faits principaux; biographie des hommes ayant marque dans l'arm?, les sciences, les lettres, etc., de 1830 a 1889, tom. 1 (1890), p. 43.
Last updated: Sep 17, 2021