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Number: 3540
Continent: Africa
Region: North
Place Names: Egypt, Sudan
Year of Origin: 1875
Title: Tempel von Kum Ombo. [from] Nilbilder auf seiner Reise durch Egypten nach der Natur aufgenommen
Language: German
Publish Origin:
Height: 24.0
Width: 35.0
Units: centimeters
Size Class.: Medium
Color Type: Full Color
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Cartographer: Karl Werner
Publisher: Karl Werner
Other Contributors: Edmund Brehm
Johannes Dumichen
Northernmost Latitude: 24.5
Southernmost Latitude: 24.4
Westernmost Longitude: 32.9
Easternmost Longitude: 32.95
Measurement Notes: modern estimates
Notes: [PENDING ABE ARRIVAL]d. 1871--1875, single chromo-lithograph view of Nile, Tempel von Kum Ombo. - Aus: "Nilbilder auf seiner Reise durch Egypten nach der Natur aufgenommen" Texte von A(lfred) E(dmund) Brehm und J(ohannes) Dumichen. which was originally an atlas of 24 views and one map; Rare large folio edition. ? Magnificent work published prior to the more verbose edition of 1881. Egyptian views and scenes by the watercolourist Karl Werner, acclaimed in his time, who travelled up the Nile till Nubia. Werner made vivid and atmospheric paintings of great artistic expression, accurate in detail. The plates, dated 1870-74, are of lasting value due to their accuracy in topographical, ethnographic and architectural respect;....The Temple of Kom Ombo is an unusual double temple in the town of Kom Ombo in Aswan Governorate, Upper Egypt. It was constructed during the Ptolemaic dynasty, 180?47 BC. Some additions to it were later made during the Roman period. The building is unique because its 'double' design meant that there were courts, halls, sanctuaries and rooms duplicated for two sets of gods The southern half of the temple was dedicated to the crocodile god Sobek, god of fertility and creator of the world with Hathor and Khonsu. Meanwhile, the northern part of the temple was dedicated to the falcon god Haroeris ("Horus the Elder"), along "with Tasenetnofret (the Good Sister, a special form of Hathor or Tefnet/Tefnut[3]) and Panebtawy (Lord of the Two Lands)." The temple is atypical because everything is perfectly symmetrical along the main axis. The texts and reliefs in the temple refer to cultic liturgies which were similar to those from that time period. The temple itself had a specific theology. The characters invoked the gods of Kom Ombo and their legend. Two themes were present in this temple: the universalist theme and the local theme. The two combine to form the theology of this temple. A temple was already built in the New Kingdom to honor these gods, however, this site gained in importance during the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Little remains of the New Kingdom temple. The existing temple was begun by Ptolemy VI Philometor (180?145 BC) at the beginning of his reign and added to by other Ptolemies, most notably Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (51?47 BC), who built the inner and outer hypostyles. The scene on the inner face of the rear wall of the temple is of particular interest, and "probably represents a set of surgical instruments." Much of the temple has been destroyed by the Nile, earthquakes, and later builders who used its stones for other projects. Some of the reliefs inside were defaced by Copts who once used the temple as a church. All the temples buildings in the southern part of the plateau were cleared of debris and restored by Jacques de Morgan in 1893. A few of the three hundred crocodile mummies discovered in the vicinity are displayed in The Crocodile Museum. In September 2018, the Egyptian antiquities ministry announced that a sandstone sphinx statue had been discovered at the temple. The statue, measuring approximately 28 cm in width and 38 cm in height, likely dates to the Ptolemaic Dynasty.
Last updated: May 7, 2019