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Number: 3552
Continent: Africa
Region: South
Place Names: South Africa, Transvaal, Botswana, Namibia
Year of Origin: 1899
Title: Politisch-militarische Karte von Sud-Afrika, zur Veranschaulichung der Kampfe zwischen Buren und Englandern bis zur Gegenwart
Language: German
Publish Origin: Gotha
Height: 51.8
Width: 66.6
Units: centimeters
Size Class.: Medium
Scale: 1 : 4,000,000
Color Type: Full Color
Click for high-resolution zoomable image
Cartographer: Paul Langhans
Publisher: Deutscher Kolonial Atlas
Johann Georg Justus Perthes and Heirs
Other Contributors: Gustav Perthes
Northernmost Latitude: -16.0
Southernmost Latitude: -35.0
Westernmost Longitude: 12.0
Easternmost Longitude: 38.0
Measurement Notes: on map
Notes: [source Dasa Pahor] Separate from, Aus Habenicht Spezialkarte v. Afrika u. Langhans, Deutscher Kolonial Atlas. This Chromolithogaph map of South Africa from the Second Boer War, featuring important information from German sources. ). It was made towards the end of 1899, during the heady early days of the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), when the Afrikaner offensive was overrunning and besieging British positions. The map focuses on the independent Afrikaner states, the South African Republic (the ZAR, Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, essentially the Transvaal, coloured in light blue) and the Orange Free State (coloured in yellow), where most of the action was occurring; while the British-controlled regions lie to the north, west and south (including the Cape, Natal, Bechuanaland (Botswana) and Rhodesia, coloured orange); Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique, coloured green), and German Southwest Africa (Namibia, coloured pink). The map is exceptionally detailed, showing battle sites, railway lines (both built and projected), telegraph lines, as well as major town and forts. As the Afrikaner troops held down various British positions in the Veld, the map depicts the massive surge of British forces that were arriving in the region, which aimed to kill the Boer cause with overwhelming force. A vast, continuous column of troops is shown to be travelling towards the Afrikaner states from the Cape, while other columns arrive from Durban, Bulawayo and Loren? Marques (Maputo). The overall image is one of the Afrikaner republics being completely surrounded and consumed, which was close to reality. The map is attractively adored with the portrait of Paul Kruger, the President of the ZAR, the flag of the British Royal Navy, and the arms of the two Afrikaner republics. It also features a large inset map, in the lower right, ?Goldfelder in Transvaal,? that depicts the goldfields in the ZAR (the British covetousness of these fields was essentially the cause of the war). The other inset map ?Haupptreks der Buren,? details the ?treks,? or rather the migration of the Afrikaners from the Cape to the Transvaal and the Orange Free State areas in the 1830s, following which they founded their independent republics in the early 1850s. . The Second Anglo-Boer War (1899 ? 1902) The Second Anglo-Boer War was the decisive showdown between Britain and the Afrikaners for control of northeastern South Africa. The British, who has controlled the Cape since 1806, largely left the Afrikaner republics alone for some years. However, in 1868, when diamonds were discovered at Kimberly, they came to covet the Afrikaner territories. In 1877, the British ?annexed? the ZAR, although this was not recognized by the Afrikaners. During the First Anglo-Boer War (1880-1), the British were defeated by the Afrikaners? amazingly effective guerrilla campaign. The British duly recognized the independence of the ZAR and the Orange Free State. In 1886, the world?s greatest vain of gold was discovered along the Witwatersrand Ridge in the ZAR. From that point onwards, the British were hell-bent on taking over the Afrikaner republics. The Afrikaners unwisely allowed thousands of British settlers, called uitlanders, to move to their states to work the mines. This created a large pro-British population in their midst. The Second Anglo-Boer War commenced in October 1899 and, for the first three months, the Afrikaners overran the region, tying down British positions, in so-called ?Sitzkrieg? warfare. This proved unwise, as the British deployed 500,000 troops to the region to counter Afrikaner forces of barely 90,000 men. The British soon had the upper hand, consistently defeating the Afrikaners in conventional battles. The Afrikaners monted a fierce guerrilla insurgency, to which the the British responded with a ?scorched earth? campaign, devastating the Transvaal countryside at tremendous cost to civilian life. The price to Britain was also awesome, as it is estimated that the war cost the equivalent of over ?200 billion in today?s money! The Afrikaners were forced to surrender and signed the Treaty of Vereeninging (May 31, 1902), by which the Afrikaner republics were dissolved and annexed by Britain, in return for Afrikaner?s retaining their property rights and being safe from reprisals. The British reorganised the region into the Union of South Africa in 1910. The German Connection & the Present Map While many German maps of British colonial regions are derivative, copied from British maps, this map has original and important information relating to the extensive German role in the conflict. German Kaiser Wilhelm II (reigned 1888-1918) obsessively disliked Britain and sympathised with the Afrikaners, some of whom, such as the ZAR President Paul Kruger, were of German decent. German public opinion was also stridently pro-Boer. In 1896, the British launched the half-baked ?Jamieson Raid,? whereupon a band of British irregulars, funded by Cecil Rhodes, tried to invade the Transvaal. The Afrikaners easily crushed this idiotic misadventure. Kaiser Wilhelm imprudently sent President Kruger the infamous ?Kruger Telegram,? whereby he congratulated him for defeating the Brits. The message became public and caused an international furore. It represented the first serious flare-up between Germany and Britain in the long run up to World War I. During the 1890s, knowing the war with Britain was inevitable, the Afrikaners purchased vast quantities of German weapons, made by firms such as Mauser & Krupp. Germany, which in 1884 had annexed nearby Namaqualand and Damaraland, forming German Southwest Africa (Namibia), also funnelled supplies and support overland to the Afrikaners. During the actual war itself, while Germany technically remained neutral, German volunteers formed a ?German Freikorps,? with numerous veteran German soldiers held major roles in the Afrikaner armies. Interestingly, the present map shows the positions of the German military in Namibia. While these forces did not formally participate in the conflict, given Wilhelm?s bias, the British were seriously concerned about another front opening up against them to the north. The map?s paper wrappers feature an interesting description of South Africa and the early events of the war. Paul Langhans (1867 ? 1952) was an important German cartographer, who is best known for his Deutscher Kolonial-Atlas (Gotha, 1893?7), which depicted all of the German colonies as well as the numerous German emigrant communities across the world. The present map was separately published, but was also considered to be a special addendum to the atlas. References: OCLC: 494094937.
Last updated: Jul 17, 2021