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Number: 3767
Continent: Africa
Region: East
Place Names: Tanzania
Year of Origin: 1896
Title: Spezialkarte von Deutsch-Ostafrika entworfen und bearbeitet von P. Krauss
Language: German
Publish Origin: Leipzig
Height: 86.0
Width: 76.0
Units: centimeters
Size Class.: Medium
Scale: 1 : 2,000,000
Color Type: Outline Color
Click for high-resolution zoomable image
Cartographer: Hans Meyer
Paul Krauss
Publisher: Simon Schropp'sche
Carl Schonert
Other Contributors: Carl Meyer
Ernst Neumann
J. Waber
J. H. Neumann
Northernmost Latitude: 0.5
Southernmost Latitude: -12.0
Westernmost Longitude: 29.0
Easternmost Longitude: 41.0
Measurement Notes: on map
Notes: [Dasa Pahor source] Lithograph in color: Steindruckerei von Carl Schonert for Simon Schropp'sche Landkarten-Handlung (Berlin), 1896.This 1896 map of Tanzania is fascinating to compare to the Max Moisel map of the same (c. 1910). Here the colony is shown before the scientific surveys that were incorporated into the Moisel map. A very rare and important early large format broadside map of German East Africa (mainland Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi), depicting the colony just as Germany was fitfully establishing its authority, but long before it was scientifically surveyed, drafted by the Leipzig cartographer Paul Krauss, working in cooperation with Hans Meyer, the great mountaineer who made the first complete ascent of Mount Kilimanjaro (an inset map of the peak is included); printed in Leipzig by a boutique workshop, but under the promotional umbrella of the major Berlin publisher Simon Schropp. This very rare, fascinating broadside is one of the most detailed early maps of Deutsch-Ostafrika (German East Africa), the German colony that from 1885 until World War I occupied all of what is today mainland Tanzania (Tanganyika), Burundi and Rwanda. The map was drafted by the prominent Leipzig cartographer Paul Krauss, at the instigation of the explorer and publishing tycoon Hans Meyer, whom famously made the first ascent to the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa?s highest peak. The map is remarkable for capturing the territory at an early stage in its colonial history, when the Germans were trying to explore and develop the colony against the immense challenges posed by local opposition and the rugged and vast nature of the terrain. It shows that while some parts of the country were relatively well known and settled under the German yolk, much of the region was still utterly unknown to Europeans, with vast areas crudely mapped, or even left blank altogether. The main map embraces the entirety of Deutsch-Ostafrika in great detail. As noted in the 'Erkl?ung' (Explanation), in the lower-right, the map labels the territories of tribes and regions, while settlements that are double-underlined in red are German district headquarters; places single-underlined host army and police stations; towns marked with flags are home to customs offices, while places marked with a 'P'have post offices. Additionally, the numerous Roman Catholic and Protestant missions marked across the land are testament to the missionaries' remarkable zeal in East Africa. All rivers and lakes are delineated as best as possible according to the most recent knowledge, while highlands are expressed by delicate shading. While the overall appearance of the country is generally recognizable to the modern viewer, a close look will reveal that only the areas near the Indian Ocean coast and the inland northeast are precisely mapped, while the rest of the country is shown to be only vaguely known with only the areas immediately along major transport corridors charted, while large expanses of country are left blank, labelled 'Unerforchtes gebiet' (Unexplored area) or 'Sp?licht bewohnt' (Sparsely inhabited), or the like. Even Lake Tanganyika has an amorphous shape, as its shores had never been properly charted, while the colony's boundaries with British territories (Kenya, Uganda) and the Belgian Congo Free State, are shown to be vague, as these lines would not be surveyed for another decade at least. Nevertheless, given the immensity and ruggedness of the territory and the fact that many of the region's tribes were (understandably) not welcoming of the German presence, the map is an impressive work of frontier cartography, providing a vast wealth of information that could serve as the basis for comprehensive, systematic mapping. Notably, the map features the already completed portions of the Usambara Railway (Usambarabahn), the first rail line built in Deutsch-Ostafrika, the construction of which commenced in June 1893, and is here shown to run form Tanga inland to Korogwe. The line would later be extended to Moshi, by the foot of Mount Kilimanjaro by 1911, although the full projected route of the line, as show here by a red line to Lake Victoria, would never be completed. The map also shows the initial proposed course of the Central Line (Mittellandbahn), which was planned to run between Dar es Salaam and Kigoma, on Lake Tanganyika. Additionally, the map shows the various steamship routes connecting the colony in the Indian Ocean and across Lake Malawi. The undersea telegraph lines are also delineated, notably including the Zanzibar-Aden cable that provided the only rapid communication link between the region and Europe. Additionally, the map features three cartographic insets. First, in the lower left corner, is 'Usambara', detailing the economically important highland region in the northeast, inland of Tanga. The second, in the upper-right corner, 'Kilima-ndjaro' gives a close-up of of Africa's highest peak. Third, in the lower right, is an inset depicting the 'Grossherzogtum Hessen', being the Grand Duchy of Hessen, in central Germany, providing a graphic means to convey the relative immensity of Deutsch-Ostafrika. A Note on Editions and Rarity The present example is the first edition of the map; a second edition was printed by the Verlag von Carl Meyers Graphischen Institut, in Leipzig, in 1898. Examples of both editions are today very rare. While a total of about dozen examples of either edition are citied in libraries worldwide, we are not aware of any examples as having appeared on the market in the last generation. Germany's Early Attempts to Colonize East Africa The region that encompasses today?s mainland Tanzania, Burundi and Rwanda, is blessed with extraordinary beauty and great natural resources. While Britain?s Royal Navy had long maintained a fleeting presence along the region?s coasts, up to the 'Scramble for Africa' no European power had made a serious attempt to colonize the region. In 1884, a German syndicate, the Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft (the German East Africa Company), led by the hard-charging adventurer Carl Peters (1856 - 1918), mounted an effort to colonize a part of East Africa, in what is today north-eastern mainland Tanzania. Peters travelled to the region, signing 'protection treaties'with the local chiefs. He then returned to Berlin and aggressively lobbied a reluctant Chancellor Otto von Bismarck to have German claim the area during the Berlin Conference (1884-5), whereby the European powers divided up Africa amongst themselves. Peters' Gesellschaft was duly awarded control of large portions of East Africa, called Deutsch-Ostafrika, although the boundaries of these territories remained vague. The ruling syndicate had to contend with a rebellion of the local Arab and Swahili peoples, known as the Abushiri Revolt (1888-9), that while successfully supressed, severely undermined the regime?s credibility. Shortly thereafter, Germany and Britain signed the Heligoland?Zanzibar Treaty (1890), whereby the two powers agreed to exchange Heligoland Island, in the North Sea (to be given to Germany), while Berlin relinquished its claim to Zanzibar in favour of London. Notably, the treaty also set the rough boundaries of Deutsch-Ostafrika, as shown on the present map, which enlarged the colony to encompass over a million square kilometres. In 1891, the German crown assumed direct rule over Deutsch-Ostafrika, supplanting the Gesellschaft, which became a land promotion company. The new regime embarked upon major infrastructure and agrarian development programmes, including the building of the Usambara Railway and the planting of immense tracts of sisal, cotton, coffee and rubber trees. From 1891 to 1894 the German authorities supressed a rebellion of the Hehe people in the Iringa region in the southeast of the colony, which generally harmed it reputation amongst the indigenous peoples. In the late 1890s, the German authorities commenced a systematic, scientific survey of the entire colony, including precisely mapping its international boundaries, a process which was completed in 1910. Thus, the present map predates these mapping operations, making it a valuable reference point for comparison to the seminal post survey maps, such as Max Moisel?s Deutsch-Ostafrika (circa 1910). In what was becoming a familiar refrain, the Germans supressed the Maji Maji Rebellion (1905-7), which engulfed the entire southern part of the colony. From 1905 to 1914 the colonial regime oversaw the completion of the Mittellandbahn across the country from the capital to Lake Tanganyika. On the eve of World War I, despite the many modernizing developments that the Germans had enacted in Deutsch-Ostafrika, the colony was seen to be performing well below its potential, in good part due the fact that the regime never gained the cooperation of the local people; it ruled by force and intimidation, as opposed to persuasion. During World War I, despite the valiant efforts of the forces under General Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, the German commander in East Africa, Britain managed to conquer Deutsch-Ostafrika. In 1919 the colony was divided between Britain and Belgium, with Rwanda and Burundi going to the latter, while Tanganyika became a British protectorate. The Present Map and the Meyer-Krauss Collaboration The present map is the result of the first known collaboration between Hans Meyer, the famous mountaineer and publishing heir, and Paul Krauss, a prominent Leipzig cartographer. Hans Meyer (1858 ? 1929) was one of the most important mountaineers and explorers of his era. Well educated and intellectually curious, in 1884, along with his brother, he assumed control of the Bibliographisches Institut in Leipzig. Founded by Meyer's grandfather in 1826, it was one of Germany?s leading publishing houses, responsible for the Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, for generations the most popular encyclopaedia in the Germanic world. After travelling the world, in the late 1880s, Meyer set about making the first complete ascent of Mount Kilimanjaro, which at 5,895 m (19,341 ft) was the highest peak in Africa, located within territory that had recently come under German administration. In 1889, after two failed attempts, Meyer, along with the famed Austrian mountaineer, Ludwig Purtscheller, successfully reached the mountain's highest summit. The first map based on Meyer and Purtscheller?s expedition, the ?Spezialkarte des oberen Kilimandscharo? was published within his book, Ostafrikanische Gletscherfahrten Forschungsreise im Kilimandscharo-Gebiet (Leipzig, 1890). It seems that it was at Meyer's instigation that Paul Krauss drafted the present map of German East Africa, with its Kilimanjaro inset. While at first it might seem strange that the map was not published by Meyer?s own massive printing house, the Bibliographisches Institut, such arrangements were actually quite common at the time. Most of the big German publishers, while technically rivals, were also good friends and their houses often worked together on projects. It was also universally recognized that some publishers were better at handling specific types of projects than others. Moreover, it was considered to be better 'PR' for certain works, such as the present map, to be printed by a house other than one?s own, especially one with great prestige and marketing muscle. For this reason, the present map, while lithographed by the boutique Leipzig printer Carl Schonert, was issued under the label of Simon Schropp, the venerable Berlin map house, founded in 1772. Meyer likely supplied Krauss with important information used to compose the map, while the Schropp firm would have provided him with access to ground-breaking materials from the German Colonial Ministry. Paul Krauss (b. 1861, fl. 1890s ? 1920s) was a prominent Leipzig cartographer. A native of the city, in the mid-1890s, he became associated with the its premier publishing house, the Bibliographisches Institut. There he befriended Hans Meyer, and the two men collaborated on several projects over the next generation. Krauss made numerous maps published by the Institut, highlights of which include a map of China, Karte von Ost-China (1900); the Russo-Japanese War, Der russisch-japanische Kriegsschauplatz (1904); an early automotive map of Saxony, Radfahr u. Automobil Karte vom Königreich Sachsen (1906); a transport map of Germany and Austria, Verkehrskarte des Deutschen Reiches und Österreichs (1910); as well as map of Greater Berlin, Gross-Berlin (1913). Notably, Krauss made the magnificent 'Spezialkarte des Kilimandjaro', for Han Meyer's book, Der Kilimandjaro (1900), as well as the 'Spezialkarte des Chimborazo', for Meyer's work on his travels in South America, In den Hoch-Anden von Ecuador (1907). Krauss seems to have been still making maps for the Bibliographisches Institut as late as the 1920s, although details of his later life (including his date of death) remain sketchy. His name appeared on re-issues of his maps as late as 1938. References: Staatsbibliotek zu Berlin: 8" Kart. C 16739/10.; British Library: Maps 66430.(25.).; Bibliotheque nationale de France: FRBNF40674655; OCLC: 495101587 / 494699983 / 557512273; Hans FISCHER (ed.), Geographische Zeitschrift, vol. 2 (January, 1896), p. 477; J. Scott KELTIE (ed.), The Statesman's Yearbook: Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1898 (London: Macmillan & Co., 1898), 'Books of Reference on German Dependencies', p. 571; ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, The Geographical Journal, vol. 7 (1896), p. 687.
Last updated: Jul 23, 2020