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Number: 3946
Continent: Africa
Region: East
Place Names: Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambesi River
Year of Origin: 1861
Title: Zambezia E Sofalla. Mappa coordenado sobre numerosos documentos antigos e modernos portuguezes e estrangeiros pelo V. de Sa de Bandeira.
Sub-Title:
Language: Portuguese
Publish Origin: Lisbon
Height: 43.8
Width: 47.0
Units: centimeters
Size Class.: Medium
Scale: 1 : 3,580,640
Color Type: No Color
Images of this map are not yet available.
Cartographer: Bernardo de Sa Nogueira de Figueiredo, Marquis De Sa Da BANDEIRA
Engraver: Lithograpfia Belga
Calheiros
Publisher: Lithograpfia Belga
Other Contributors: Bullitin de la Societe de Geographie
Victor Adolphe Malte-Brun
Northernmost Latitude: -10.0
Southernmost Latitude: -24.0
Westernmost Longitude: 25.0
Easternmost Longitude: 41.0
Notes: [ABE arrival ?lost, replaced by Pahor] Fine Lithograph; Of great historical importance ? the first serious attempt to map ?Zambezia?, being what is today central Mozambique, eastern Zimbabwe, southern Malawi and eastern Zambia, a personal project of the skilled cartographer and five-time Portuguese prime minister, the Marquis de S?da Bandeira, created to underpin Portugal?s claim to the region in the face of incursions by British missionary-explorers (namely David Livingstone) ? extremely rare; T his is the first edition of an extremely important separately issued map that represents the first serious attempt to map ?Zambezia?, being the lower Zambezi River basin in what is today central Mozambique, eastern Zimbabwe, southern Malawi and eastern Zambia. It was the personal project of Bernardo de S?Nogueira de Figueiredo, Viscount (later Marquis) de S?da Bandeira, who while one of Portugal?s leading statesmen, having served as prime minister on f ive separate occasions, nevertheless found the countless hours to create the present map, predicated upon his access to the best Portuguese and British sources, including hitherto secret explorers? manuscripts. He made the map in direct response to David Livingstone?s ongoing Zambezi Expedition (1858-64), the f irst of what would be many British ?incursions? upon the region. The map, much copied and cited, became one of the seminal documents underpinning Portugal?s maximal claims to all Zambezia, and for the next three decades it represented an ?inconvenient truth? for Britain, as it sought to brazenly grab land from its ancient ally. An amazing work of frontier cartography, the map showcases the lower Zambezi and its tributaries in unprecedented detail, even if some of the areas high in the hinterland remain conjectural or ill-defined. Numerous rivers and lakes are carefully delineated, ?Serras?, or mountain ranges, are expressed by hachures while the territories of the various indigenous tribes are labeled, while there are many notes regarding the quality of the land and the political situation. What is today known as Lake Malawi, first encountered by the Portuguese in 1846, is shown in an amorphous form as the ?Lago Nhanja Mucuro?, while ?Lago Chirua? (Lake Chilwa) is clearly mapped to the south. T he areas definitively identified as Portuguese territory (outlined in pink) are anchored by the Districts of Inhambane, Sof?la, Tete, Senna, Quelimane and Moçambique. Notably, the ?Rio Chire? (Shire River) valley, largely in todays? Malawi, and a particular area of interest to Livingstone, is shown to be under Portuguese control as the local tribes are labeled to be ?S?dito Portuguez? (Portuguese Subjects). Beyond that, the realms outlined in yellow are either the territories of the ?Republica Africana do Sul? (South African Republic, or Transvaal), in the southwest, while the areas to the north (in what is today Zimbabwe and Zambia) are presumably a ?no man?s land?, but still open to Portuguese domination. Importantly, the map labels innumerable villages, many of which appear on a map for the first time. Major Portuguese bases are identified by double circles, and while most settlements are of indigenous people, those labelled as ?Prazos? or prefixed by a ?P?, are Portuguese crown estates controlled by ethnic Portuguese colonists. In the upper left corner, the map features a lengthy ?Explanation?: Explicaç?s ? Prazo, ou Prazo da Coroa; ?um territorio que paga impostos ?Coroa, Alguns Prazos são tão vastos como provincias, taes são, entre outros, Cheringoma, Goroingoza e Tambara. Todo o littoral da Zambezia desde as Bocas do Rio Giuzngo at??Macaia, no Districto de Sof?la, est? dividido em Prazos da Coroa, e egualmente o litoral do Districto de Sof?la desde a Macaia, at?aos limites do Districto de Inhambane, no Rio Piau, junto Cabo de S. Sebastião. Lupata; ?uma garganta ou desfiladeiro em uma Serra por onde passa um rio ou caminho. Bar; ?um logar onde se faz mineração de oiro. Ha na Zambezia e Sof?la muitas minas deste metal, e tambem de ferro, carvão, &c. As limbas ? designam limites entre os Districtos. No Rio Zambeze navega-se at?Cabrabassa, e no Chire at? ? cataractas. O leito do Rio Muto, braço do Zambeze, fica em seco parte do anno. O paiz produz algodão, canna d?assucar, caf? cereaea &c. I. Isla / P. Prazo / R. Rio. [Explanations ? the ?Prazos da Coroa?, or Crown Estates Term, are territories that pay taxes to the Crown. Some of these estates are as vast as provinces, such as Cheringoma, Goroingoza and Tambara, among others. The entire littoral of Zambezia from the mouths of the Rio Giuzngo to Macaia, in the District of Sof?la, is divided into Corwn Estates, and equally the coast of the District of Sof?la from Macaia to the limits of the District of Inhambane, in the Rio Piau, near Cabo de S. Sebastião. Lupata; It is a gorge or gorge in a mountain range through which a river or path passes.....Bar; it is a place where gold is mined. There are in Zambezia and Sof?la many mines of this metal, and also of iron, coal, &c. T he lines - designate boundaries between Districts. On the Zambezi River, sail to Cabrabassa, and on the Chire to the waterfalls. T he bed of the Muto River, an arm of the Zambezi, remains dry for part of the year. T he country produces cotton, sugarcane, sugar, coffee, cereal &c. I. Islands / P. ?Prazos da Coroa?, or Crown Estates / R. Rivers]. T he map also features several itinerary routes into the interior, of which a key route is described in the note, in the lower right corner: Nota ? Na foz do Luobo, chamada Nbamissengo on Congune, foa um posto fiscal portuguez. O itinierario indicado no mappa, da Villa de Inhambane ?de Zoupansberg foi seguido em 1855 pelo Padre Montanba e Alfereo Texiera. No Districto de Inhambane ba uns 60 Regulos, ou Cabos, chefes das terras maritimas e do Sertão, que pagam tribute ?Coroa de Portugal.? [Note ? At the mouth of Luobo, Chamba Nbamissengo on Congune, was a Portuguese tax post. The itinerary indicated on the map, from Villa de Inhambane to that of Zoupansberg [South African Republic] was followed in 1855 by Father Montanba and Alfereo Texiera. In the District of Inhambane there are some 60 Regulos, or Cabos, chiefs of the maritime lands and the Hinterland, who pay tribute to the Crown of Portugal]. Portugal vs. Britain in the ?Scramble for Africa?: Europe?s Oldest Allies Turn on Each Other During the mid-19th century, Portugal controlled the coasts of Angola and Mozambique, as it had for three centuries, although its presence in the interior of the later was limited to the lower Zambesi Valley below Tete. The inland regions were home to many often-less-than-welcoming native nations and riddled with deadly tropical diseases, and the Portuguese, as a maritime people, were inherently ill-suited to such places. While admirable efforts were made from 1840 to 1869 to buttress their littoral holdings with increased settlement in the Sertão (hinterland), as well as sponsoring exploratory expeditions (such as to Lake Malawi), Portugal was initially unprepared for the ?Scramble for Africa? that was to ensue amongst the European powers. The present map is an early attempt to ?set the record straight? with regards to Portugal?s ?rights? of primacy in the greater Zambezia region. Lisbon was especially concerned by Britain?s increasingly aggressive designs, which threatened to undermine what was the world?s oldest diplomatic alliance (England and Portugal had been allies since the Treaty of Windsor (1386)). Britain had ruled the Cape Colony since the 1806, while the eastern interior of South Africa was home to the independent Afrikaner states of the South African Republic (ZAR, or Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, officially founded in the 1850s. The interior to the north of Mozambique proper remained largely an enigma to Europeans until the explorations of David Livingston, in the 1850s, who visited the Great Lakes of Africa, including Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi). T he discovery of the world?s largest reserves of diamonds on the frontiers of the Cape Colony and the Orange Free State, in 1868, dramatically increased British interest the Southern Africa, placing pressure upon both Portugal and the Afrikaner republics. In the 1870s, British Protestant missionaries founded settlements in the Lake Nyasa area, while the British established the African Lakes Company in 1877, to trade in the greater region. Britain also turned its sights upon Portuguese territory, making a preposterous claim to part of Delgoa Bay, near the major Portuguese town of Lourenço Marques (today Maputo), although this bid was dismissed by arbitration in 1875. T hese developments had deeply surprised and alarmed Portugal, as Britain, gripped by lust for natural resources wealth, was transomed from being its oldest ally into a ravenous and unpredictable foe ? the infamous ?Perfidious Albion?. To protect its position, since 1869, Lisbon commissioned several expeditions deep the into the heart of Southern Africa, with the objective of claiming the vast region that lay between Angola and Mozambique as a Portuguese zone. The most important of these missions were the transcontinental treks made by Alexandre de Serpa Pinto (1877-8) and Hermenegildo Capelo and Roberto Ivens (1884-5). Portugal?s fears intensified when Britain unsuccessfully sought to annex the Afrikaner republics, fighting against the ZAR during the First Anglo-Boer War (1880-1). At the Berlin Conference (1884-5), whereby the European powers divided Africa between themselves, Portugal was given clear title to coastal Angola and Mozambique, while the fate of the interior regions was left up in the air. The Conference held that the future colonial control of undesignated areas would be determined by reasons of historical discovery and recent exploration. Consequently, both Britain and Portugal intensified their exploration activities in what is today Zimbabwe and Zambia, while Britain expanded its presence in the Lake Nyasa area. In 1886, the Portuguese government commissioned the Mapa cor-de-rosa, known in English as the ?Pink Map? whereby Lisbon unambiguously declared its possession of virtually all of what is today Zimbabwe and much of Zambia and Malawi. Portugal?s move did not go unnoticed in London, whereby Whitehall stiffened its resolve. Indeed, British interests in Southern Africa dramatically increased due to the discovery of the world?s largest gold deposits in the Witwatersrand region of the ZAR, which occurred that same year. In 1888, the soon-to-be legendary Cecil Rhodes, formed the British South Africa Company, with a mandate to colonize what is today Zimbabwe and Zambia (soon to become ?Rhodesia?), which were thought to be home to vast mineral wealth. He also envisioned the creation of a British colonial domain that would someday extend unin terrupted from the ?Cape to Cairo?, connected by a railway. T he British Prime Minister Lord Salisbury, egged on by colonial grandees, made a bold and what many considered a very ?rude? move. He issued the ?1890 British Ultimatum?, whereby Britain directly threatened Portugal with military consequences unless it agreed to relinquish its claims to the interior regions between Angola and Mozambique. This was totally against international law and the diplomatic dispute mechanisms ordained by the Berlin Conference. T he Portuguese government was shocked by this betrayal at the hands of their oldest ally. However, it simply had no choice but to comply, initially agreeing to the Treaty of London (August 20, 1890). In this proposed accord, Portugal would surrender its claims to all of what is today Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi to Britain, plus ceding some lands that were commonly considered to be parts of Mozambique proper. At the end of August 1890, the treaty provisions were made public, sparking a furore among the Portuguese people of an intensity that had not been seen in three generations. The Portuguese people had deep emotional and economic attachment to what were their last remaining major colonies, and felt betrayed by their own government, seen the London treaty as an intolerable humiliation. The backlash was fierce, causing the Portuguese parliamentary government to collapse, while doing permanent damage to the monarchy (indeed the 1910 Republican Revolution that toppled the crown held the outrage over the 1890 treaty as one of its leading causes). Portugal thus did not ratify the accord, while even many leading figures in London believed that the treaty?s terms were unnecessarily harsh against Portugal. Both sides went back the negotiating table. T he Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1891 (June 11) was agreed by both powers, and included an improved settlement for Portugal, although the overall result remained that Britain was to gain title to ?Rhodesia?, forever killing the notion of linking Angola with Mozambique in all-Portuguese band running across Southern Africa. Specifically, the treaty awarded valuable additional territory to Mozambique north of the Zambesi River, while Britain was given Manicaland (in today?s Zimbabwe). While the settlement fell well short of Portugal?s ambitions, it at least guaranteed both Mozambique and Angola ample inland territory, while presumably eliminating threat of future British aggression. As Britain had essentially gotten what it wanted, it returned to being Portugal?s steadfast ally and protector, and the two nations notably fought together during World War I to fend off (albeit with great difficulty) the German General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck?s amazingly vigorous invasion of British East Africa, Mozambique and Rhodesia. Portugal would continue to rule Angola and Mozambique until 1975.//////Marquis de S?da Bandeira: Five-Time Portuguese Prime Minister and Cartographer Bernardo de S?Nogueira de Figueiredo, Marquis de S?da Bandeira (1795 - 1876) was one of the leading Portuguese political and diplomatic figures of the 19th century, renowned for his controversial liberal stances, and his extraordinary intellectual rigour. A military man, he first rose to prominence during the Liberal Wars (1828-34), in which he fought bravely, losing an arm. In the wake of that civil conflict, he became a resolute liberal voice, notably supporting the abolition of slavery (which would not occur in Portugal?s overseas empire until 1869). For four decades, S?da Bandeira was at the forefront of Portuguese politics, serving as prime minister on five separate occasions, albeit only for short stints (5 November 1836 ? 1 June 1837; 10 August 1837 ? 18 April 1839; 17 April 1865 ? 5 September 1865; 22 July 1868 ? 11 August 1869; 29 August ? 29 October 1870). He was made a baron in 1833; a viscount in 1834; and a marquis in 1864. S?da Bandeira was an intellectual and prolific author who always took a ?hands on? approach to his work. Unusually for such senior figure, he spent hours every day doing his own research and writing, resulting in countless books, pamphlets and memoranda on Portuguese politics and diplomacy, which were of considerable influence. While serving in the army, he become a skilled cartographer and analyzer of maps and he placed the geographic dimension at the forefront of his work. S?da Bandeira had a special interest in the affairs of Angola and Mozambique, which were so critical to Portugal?s economy and imperial identity. When he saw that his country?s claim to all of ?Zambezia? was threatened by David Livingstone?s ongoing Zambezi Expedition (1858-64), he wrote a convincing paper supporting his country?s preexisting maximal territorial claims by right of exploration, settlement and the numerous accords signed with local indigenous chiefs, entitled ?Nota relativa a alguns lagos da Africa oriental e aos rios Zambeze e Chire? (January 1861). However, the centrepiece of S?da Bandeira?s advocacy in favour of Portugal?s claims in Zambezia was the present map, the first serious attempt to map the interior of the region, which he painstaking assembled from the best available sources (both Portuguese and British, including hitherto secret explorer?s manuscripts. While published separately from the ?Nota relativa?, the map was a fitting corollary to his textual arguments. Likewise, in 1864, S?da Bandeira, co-authored, with the colonial administrator Fernando da Costa Leal, a ground-breaking map of Angola. While the marquis died in 1876, well before the territorial questions regarding the boundaries of Mozambique and Angola were resolved, his mapping and treatises on these matters had an enduring influence in that they undermined Britain?s moral and legal positions, even if Britain ended up gaining most of what it wanted by the threat of force.////// A Note on Editions and Rarity T he present first edition of the map is very rare. Prior to the creation of the Comissão de Cartografia, the special geographic bureau established in Lisbon in 1883 by the Portuguese Ministry of the Navy and the Colonies to map the country?s overseas possessions, official Portuguese maps of Africa were generally created on an ?ad hoc? basis, with the works personally commissioned by ministers or explores and issued in small print runs by ?boutique? Lisbon map houses. T he present map, issued in 1861, was published by the Lithograpfia Belga, the ?Belgian Lithography Louse?, a small Lisbon outfit that specialized in portraits and views, as well as the odd map. We are not aware of any other examples of the first edition as having appeared on the market in the last 25 years. While we can trace several examples held by Portuguese institutions, we can locate only 3 examples abroad, held by the Biblioth?ue nationale de France; Biblioteca Nacional de Espa?; and the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin. T he map proved highly influential, and it was published in a reduced (half-sized) form under the same title within the December 1862 issue of the prestigious French journal, Bulletin de la Soci??de g?graphie. Please see a link courtesy of the Harvard University Library: https://curiosity.lib.harvard.edu/scanned-maps/catalog/44-990127083620203941 T he official second, and dramatically revised, edition of the map was issued under the title Zambezia e paizes adjacentes: mappa coordenado sobre numerosos documentos em que se comprehendem as viagens do dr. Lacerda, Monteiro e Gamitto, Montanha e Teixeira, Green, Chapman e outros, e muito especialmente as do ilustre dr. Livingstone (Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional, 1867), please see link: http://objdigital.bn.br/objdigital2/acervo_digital/div_cartografia/cart217138/ cart217138.jpg References: Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal: C.C. 123 A.; Biblioteca Nacional de Espa?: MV/28; Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin: Kart. C 17040; Biblioth?ue nationale de France: GE D-8383; OCLC: 1268330725, 431670000; Instituto Geogr?ico Portugu?: 0582IGP; Arquivo Hist?ico Ultramarino: PT/AHU/CARTI/064/00756; Portuguese Economic Ministry Library: C 0012-10 B|BAHOP; Bulletin de la Soci??de g?graphie, t. III, 5e. s?. (Paris, 1862), p. 129; Ana CANAS (ed.), Arquivo Hist?ico Ultramarino Coleção de Cartografia Impressa ? Moçambique (Lisbon, 2017), p. 92; COMISS? NACIONAL PARA AS COMEMORA?ES DOS DESCOBRIMENTOS PORTUGUESES, As fronteiras de ?rica (Lisbon, 1997), p. 17; Ana Cristina ROQUE and L?ia FERR?, ?Reconhecimentos Hidrogr?icos na Cartografia Portuguesa da Costa Centro e sul de Moçambique no s?ulo XIX?, Africana Studia, N? 9, 2006, Edição do Centro de Estudos Africanos da Universidade do Porto (CEAUP), pp. 187-203, eps. Pp. 189-90 and Fig. 3.; see also Univ of Illinois #afm0000237, as also another Paris edition by Malte Brun in 'Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie' engraved by Erhard;
Last updated: Feb 4, 2022