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Number: 3982
Continent: Africa
Region: Central
Place Names: Angola
Year of Origin: 1863
Title: ANGOLA Mappa coordenado pelo Visconde de Sa da Bandeira Tenente General, Ministro da Guerra, e por Fernando da Costa Leal, Tenente Coronel Governador de Mossamedes.
Sub-Title:
Language: Portuguese
Publish Origin: Lisbon
Height: 137.5
Width: 80.0
Units: centimeters
Size Class.: Large
Scale: 1 : 1,250,000
Color Type: Outline Color
Images of this map are not yet available.
Cartographer: Bernardo de Sa Nogueira de Figueiredo, Marquis De Sa Da BANDEIRA
Fernando Augusto da Costa Leal
Engraver: Deposito Geodesico do Reino
Publisher: Deposito Geodesico do Reino
Other Contributors:
Northernmost Latitude: -4.0
Southernmost Latitude: -19.0
Westernmost Longitude: 10.5
Easternmost Longitude: 19.6
Measurement Notes: on map
Notes: [PENDING arrival, Dasa Pahor and Alex Johnson source] Portuguese Colonial Cartography, Indigenous Tribal History; Lithograph, in 2 parts, each dissected into 16 sections and mounted upon old but not original linen, folding into mid-20th century black cloth covers (Very Good, both sheets overall clean and bright, Northern Part with a 17 cm tear to a panel lower right but closed with no loss and Southern Part with a 17 cm tear crossing 2 panels lower right but closed with no loss; The very rare, extra-large format first edition of the first modern, detailed map of Angola, a collaboration between the Viscount (later Marquis) de S?da Bandeira, the Portuguese Minster of War (and five-time prime minister) and Fernando da Costa Leal, the Governor of Mossamedes, a stunning technical achievement of very early scientific mapping in a Sub-Saharan theatre, adorned with beautiful and historically valuable original topographical views of Luanda, Benguela and Mossamedes; M map is not only the first modern, detailed map of Angola, but one of most sophisticated works of cartography of any part of Sub-Saharan Africa from such an early period; generally, such advanced maps were not made until the 1880s or ?90s. It is the first, and the only extra-large format edition of the map that was the result of the collaboration between the Viscount (later Marquis) de S?da Bandeira, the incumbent Portuguese Minster of War (and five-time prime minister), and Fernando da Costa Leal, the Governor of Moss?edes (a district in southern Angola), then the rising star of the Portuguese colonial establishment. T he map appeared at a critical time, during the twilight of the era of slavery (which was abolished in the Portuguese colonies in 1879) but before the international competition and change brought about by the ?Scramble for Africa?. During this time, Portuguese leaders, such as S?da Bandeira and Leal, were working diligently to develop their African colonies to make them financially profitable and to prevent territory from falling into the hands of indigenous ?rebels? or European rivals. Given that the interior of Angola, even only a short distance from the coast, was hitherto poorly defined in the Portuguese consciousness, the creation of an accurate and detailed map of all of Angola that was then under Portuguese control, or at least under partial Portuguese influence, was an absolute imperative for the crown in order to be used to delegate resources with regards to commerce, services, infrastructure and the military. T he map was the result of an amazing meeting of minds between the elderly liberal f irebrand and Abolitionist, the Viscount de S?da Bandeira, who was one of greatest Portuguese figures of the 19th century, and the young and ambitious colonial district governor, Fernando da Costa Leal. While S?da Bandeira had never stepped foot in Angola, as a five-time Portuguese prime minister, and otherwise a senior cabinet minister (he was Minister of War when the present map was issued), he was one of the leading advocates of investment in Portugal?s African empire and protecting it from foreign encroachment. An exceptionally talented military-trained cartographer and writer, as a workaholic and perfectionist he insisted on drafting his own work, as opposed to delegating it to subordinates, despite his high office. Having made use of the state?s secret archives of manuscripts, by this time he was responsible for several highly important maps of regions of Mozambique and Angola, which he paired with his brilliant treatises that advanced Portuguese territorial clams. Leal was an energetic and innovative administrator, who managed to make many of the crown?s ambitions in Angola become realities. He was also a highly gifted cartographer and artist of topographical views, and he extensively toured Angola, sketching the things he saw, while he had access to manuscript maps made by explorers, landowners and adventurers. While Leal was in Lisbon on home leave in 1862-3, he and S?da Bandeira spent countless hours compiling and editing the dozens of high-quality manuscript surveys and printed charts into the present masterpiece, creating the first thorough and broadly correct view of Angola. With regards to the present map, it is important to note that it only showcases Angola as it was known to the Portuguese at the time. It extends inland only roughly as far as the Rio Cuango, in the north, and the Rio Cubango, in the south, meaning that it embraces only the western half of today?s country; the lands in the east were still terra incognita to Europeans. Portugal?s direct authority then barely extended beyond its major coastal settlements, and apart from the immediate vicinities of a small number of isolated forts and missions, the interior was still under the day-to-day control of local tribal chiefs, allied to Lisbon by tributary systems. While some Portuguese missionaries and traders ventured into the interior, for the most part, the Portuguese exercised little direct influence there, while the peace was often disrupted by inter-tribal conflicts and slave-capturing missions conducted by agents at the behest of the colonial regime. Focusing on the main map, it captures Angola through highly attractive lithography to a large scale of 1:1,250,000, and features a vast wealth of information, most of which never appeared before on maps, and much of which would not been seen again on any printed map for many years (if ever). The coastlines are shown with great accuracy, based upon trigonometrical surveys undertaken by both the British and Portuguese navies, while the littoral lands are quite well mapped. As one heads inland, the landscape is initially shown to be quite well understood, but details tend to become more scare and conjectural as one heads east. All rivers are charted as best as possible, while highlands are expressed by hachures. Portuguese towns, forts and missions are marked by squares, often with the date of their settlement. It is interesting to note that that many of the Portuguese outposts the interior were only established in the 1850s, not long before the present map appeared, while Loanda, the oldest settlement and the colonial capital, was founded in 1576. Importantly, the map labels the territories of the various indigenous tribal nations, who in most cases still, for all practical purposes, controlled their lands. Innumerable native villages are marked by simple circles, with those that are the seats of indigenous tribal chiefs (?Soba?), marked with an ?S.? The maps also delineates numerous roads and paths, as well as the routes of various military and exploring expeditions, including Governor Leal?s own extensive tours of southwestern Angola, whereby he gained much new original information used to create this map. The countryside features numerous intriguing notes on explorers? discoveries, travel times, the qualities of the land and its resources, as well as historical events. The level and quality of detail is truly amazing for a work of African frontier cartography of its era. To support Portugal?s historical claims to Angola?s territories, is the text of the ?Observa?es / Observations?, in the upper right of the Southern Sheet, given in both Portuguese and French (the premier European diplomatic language at the time). In essence, it reads that the boundaries of the Portuguese Province of Angola extend along the coast from the top of Cabinda down to Cabo Frio, which spans from 5? 12? to 18? South latitude. It asserts that these boundaries are internationally recognized by treaties between Portugal and France (1786), Portugal and Britain (1810) and between Portugal and both of those powers (1817), with said boundaries enshrined in the Portuguese Constitution of April 29, 1826. It goes on to remarks that the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cam was the first European to encounter the region, when he landed at the mouth of the Congo River in 1484, placing a padr? (a stone pillar for claiming possession of territory), at the point on the southern mouth of the river, so staking claim to the region for King Jo? II of Portugal. It is noted that in 1570, the King of the Congo ceded the coastal areas from the Congo River to Luanda to Portugal. Finally, it records that the current population of Angola is estimated to be 2,000,000. T he composition is augmented by 3 topographic views and 8 inset maps. The views, which all appear on the Northern Sheet, are all based upon original sketches taken by Leal, between 1854 and 1858. The highlight is the magnificent oblique bird?s eye view of ?Loanda? (Luanda), which takes the viewer down into the heart of the Angolan capital, picturing all major buildings and labelling key sites such as the customs house, main square, and the principal church, the Igreja do Remedios. It is a valuable sion, as very few graphic images of Luanda exist from this period. On the other side of the sheet are attractive profile views of the two other main Portuguese Angolan coastal towns, Benguela and Moss?edes. T he eight inset maps detail all of Angola?s major coastal towns and natural harbours, based upon advanced naval surveys, and include: the ?Pen?sula dos Tigres?; ?Bahia de Moss?edes?; ?Bahia dos Elefantes?; ?Bahia de Pinda?; ?Bahia do Lobito?; ?Bahia de Benguella?; ?Cidade de S. Paulo de Loanda? (Luanda)?; as well as a general map of Africa which places Angola within its grander geographic context. T he S?da Bandeira-Leal map was a massive improvement, in both its accuracy and its level of detail, over the hitherto best map of Angola, Jos? Joaquim Lopes de Lima?s Carta geographica dos reinos de Angola, e Benguela; contindo a hydrografia da ssuas costas, e as principaes situa?ẽs da sua topografia na parte do paiz sugeita ao dominio Portuguez (Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional, 1846), a comparatively small-scale work that, while a noble effort for the time, was predicated upon highly variable sources. ? T he present map of Angola was hugely admired in its time and proved highly influential, serving as the gold standard for the cartography of the country for over 20 years. It was reissued in a reduced format (half the size, at scale of 1:2,500,000) in both 1864 and 1870. T he map?s cartography would not be superseded in any way until the availability of the mapping from Captain Hermenegildo de Brito Capello and Lieutenant Roberto Ivens 1877-80 exploration expedition into the interior of Angola, which followed a route from Benguela to Bi?and then up to the Iaca country, in northern Angola. This information would not be fully integrated into a complete national map until the publication of the Comiss? de Cartografia?s Carta de Angola contendo indica?es de produc?o e salubridade (Lisbon, 1885), giving the S?da Bandeira-Da Costa Leal map a run of supremacy lasting 22 years, an amazing record during a time of rapid and intense information gathering in Africa. The Marquis de S?da Bandeira: Five-Time Portuguese Prime Minister and Cartographer Bernardo de S?Nogueira de Figueiredo, 1st Marquis de S?da Bandeira (1795 - 1876), was one of the leading Portuguese political and diplomatic figures of the 19th century, renowned for his controversial liberal stances, and his extraordinary intellectual rigour. A military man, he first rose to prominence during the Liberal Wars (1828-34), in which he fought bravely, losing an arm. In the wake of that civil conflict, he became a resolute liberal voice, notably advocating for the abolition of slavery (which would not occur in Portugal?s overseas empire until 1879). For four decades, Sa da Bandeira was at the forefront of Portuguese politics, serving prime minister on five separate occasions, albeit only for short stints (5 November 1836 ? 1 June 1837; 10 August 1837 ? 18 April 1839; 17 April 1865 ? 5 September 1865; 22 July 1868 ? 11 August 1869; 29 August ? 29 October 1870). Otherwise, he often held senior cabinet posts, such as Minister of War, the office he occupied when the present map was made. S?da Bandeira was made a baron in 1833; a viscount in 1834; and a marquis in 1864. S?da Bandeira was an intellectual and prolific author who always took a ?hands on? approach to his work. Unusually for such a senior figure, he spent hours every day doing his own research and writing, resulting in countless books, pamphlets and memoranda on Portuguese politics and diplomacy, which were of considerable influence. While serving in the army, he become a skilled cartographer and analyzer of maps and he placed the geographic dimension at the forefront of his work. S?da Bandeira had a special interest in the affairs of Angola and Mozambique, which were so critical to Portugal?s economy and imperial identity. When he saw that his country?s claim to all of ?Zambezia?, the mid-interior of Mozambique, was threatened by David Livingstone?s ongoing Zambezi Expedition (1858-64), he wrote a convincing paper supporting his country?s preexisting maximal territorial claims by right of exploration, settlement and the numerous accords signed with local indigenous chiefs, entitled ?Nota relativa a alguns lagos da Africa oriental e aos rios Zambeze e Chire? (January 1861). This was followed by his spectacular map, Zambezia e Sof?la: Mappa coordenado sobre numerosos documentos antiguos e modernos portuguezes e estrangeiros pelo V.de de S?da Bandeira (Lisbon: Lith. Belga, 1861), the first serious attempt to chart the interior of Zambezia, which he painstaking assembled from the best available sources (both Portuguese and British), including hitherto secret explorer?s manuscripts. Buoyed by the success of his Zambezia project, he turned his attention to Angola. In 1855, he had written a brilliant treatise defending Portugal?s rights to Cabinda and other regions of northern Angola, against the covetous ambitions of various foreign powers. However, conversations about Angola were hindered by the fact that the geography, especially that any real distance from the coasts, was not well understood. Working with Fernando da Costa Leal, the Governor of Moss?edes, in 1862-3, they used superlative sources to create the present work, the first modern, detailed map of Angola, which served as the authoritative geographic record of the country for the next twenty years. Later that decade, S?da Bandeira authored an important study of the defenses of Lisbon, Memoria sobre as fortific?oes de Lisboa (Lisboa, Imprensa Nacional, 1866) While the marquis died in 1876, well before the territorial questions regarding the boundaries of Mozambique and Angola were resolved, his mapping and treatises on these matters had an enduring influence in that they undermined Britain?s moral and legal positions, even if Britain ended up gaining most of what it wanted by the threat of force. Lubango, the capital of Angola?s Hu?a Province, and today the country?s second largest city, was from 1923 to 1975 named S?da Bandeira, in the marquis?s honour. Fernando da Costa Leal: Rising Star of Portuguese Africa, Cut Down too Soon Fernando Augusto da Costa Leal (1825 - 1869) was one of most gifted colonial administrators in Portuguese service during the modern era, as well as being a highly virtuous cartographer and topographical artist. He was born in Porto, the son of Lieutenant General Fernando da Costa Leal, and he followed his father into military life. He graduated from the Royal Military College in 1842, and worked his way up to captain, before being appointed as the aide-de-camp to the Governor of Angola in 1853. In addition to his official duties, Leal showed a keen interest in the geography of Angola, making sketch maps and topographical drawings of considerable artistic merit. After three years in Luanda, in 1856, Leal was appointed as the Governor of Moss?edes, an amazing honour for a man only 31 years of age. He showed great vision and energy in this post, which he held for nine years (1856-9; 1862-8), reforming the bureaucracy and improving infrastructure, services and tax collection. His reports to his superiors in Lisbon remain amongst the most valuable sources on the current state and nature of southern Angola during what was a critical time. During a period of home leave, in 1862-3, Leal brought an amazing cache of manuscript sources to Lisbon, which, in addition to other materials, he and S?da Bandeira painstakingly assembled into the present map. In mid-1868, Leal was appointed as the Governor-General of Mozambique, one of the biggest jobs in the Portuguese empire. His first days there were ones of great activity and optimism. However, on May 29, 1869, barely eight months into his posting, he succumbed to a tropical disease, cut down way too soon. This was a tragedy for both the Portuguese colonial establishment and the academic study of Africa. The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society remarked that Leal was ?mourned by all who were acquainted with his virtues and noble character. His name, owing to his great ability and integrity, must bequoted among the most worthy functionaries of the Portuguese colonies.? It is worth noting that Leal?s aide-de-camp in Mozambique, his nephew, Fernando da Costa Leal (1846 ?1910), remained in Africa, whereupon he became a celebrated writer, botanist and poet. A Note on Rarity T he map is very rare. A grand, expensive work, it would have been issued in only a very limited print run, while its colossal size would have left it vulnerable to damage, giving it a low survival rate. We can trace 7 institutional examples, with 5 in Portuguese state libraries (Instituto Geogr?ico Portugu?; Biblioteca Ex?cito; Biblioteca do Instituto Hidrogr?ico; Arquivo Hist?ico Ultramarino; and the Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa), but only 2 examples outside of Portugal, held by the Biblioth?ue nationale de France and the Staatbibliothek zu Berlin. Moreover, we are not aware of any other examples as having appeared on the market, at least in the last generation. T he reduced-sized editions of the map from 1864 and 1870 are still rare but appear from time to time. References: Biblioth?ue nationale de France: FRBNF45710899; Staatbibliothek zu Berlin: Kart. C 15290; OCLC: 1268328985, 1100385847; Instituto Geogr?ico Portugu?: CA 570 / CA 571; Biblioteca Ex?cito (Portugal): 10517-1A-9-13; Biblioteca do Instituto Hidrogr?ico: C17-1 CIH; C17-2 CIH; Arquivo Hist?ico Ultramarino (AHU): PT/AHU/CARTI/001/00344; The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. 37 (1867), pp. cii. Cf. (re: Leal?s biography:) The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. 43 (1873), pp. clix-clx.
Last updated: Mar 10, 2022