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Number: 480
Continent: Africa
Region: West
Place Names: Mogador, Essaouira, Morocco
Year of Origin: 1740
Title: Mogador Verklaring
Language: Dutch
Publish Origin: Amsterdam
Units: centimeters
Size Class.: Medium
Color Type:
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Cartographer: Anonymous or Unknown
Engraver: Manuscript
Publisher: Amsterdam Admiralty
VOC Dutch East India Company
Other Contributors:
Northernmost Latitude: 31.52
Southernmost Latitude: 31.5
Westernmost Longitude: -9.78
Easternmost Longitude: -9.76
Measurement Notes: modern estimates
Notes: Manuscript map likely made by a draftsman of the VOC Dutch East India Company; With the independence of Morocco, the town took the official name of Essaouira; But the name Mogador appeared for the first time in the world map of Medici in 1357 and on a map designed by Pizzigani 1367 and the Portuguese called it Mogadouro and the Spanish Mogadour - Mogador. The name Essaouira originate from when the Sultan Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdallah renewed the city and called it Souira (Souera) 1767. The Mogador Bay is almost closed by the large Island of Mogador, making it a relatively safe harbour protected against the strong winds of the area. The site has long been considered as one of the best anchorages of the Moroccan coast. The rich fishing waters and the access of fresh water was valuable assets. The supply of wood and stones facilitated the building of fortifications. Mogador was a perfect base for further explorations south at the African coast and west at the Atlantic. In the 6th century BC, the Phoenicians founded a settlement at the island and they named it Migdal , Migdol ("watchtower"). They also established an production facility for indigo die (Royal blue) on the Island (Iles Purpuraires). The sea snail harvested for this production was Hexaplex trunculus also known as Murex trunculus. Murex brandaris and Purpura hemastoma was other purple shells. Hanno the Navigator (also known as Hanno II of Carthage) was a Carthaginian explorer (500 BC), best known for his naval exploration of the African coast, visited Mogador and started iron mining at Jbel Hadid. The Islands of Mogador (Iles Purpuraires) acquired some reputation in the Roman Empire and the King of Maurtania, Juba II, (Yuba in Imazigh) sent a contingent to "the Purple Island" to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process. Now named Esaouira; The major influence on Moroccan culture is Islam, brought to North Africa by the Arabs. They began bringing their civilization in the 7th century and the Alaouite Dynasty, which claims descent from the Prophet Mohammed, has ruled Morocco since 1649. Mogador has a major crossroads of cultures, connecting with the Haha Berbers and Chiadma Arabs. The historians during the middle ages describes the site as a fortified town and a place of wintering for the navigators on the river of Amkdour (Oued Ksob). In 1506, the king of Portugal, D. Manuel I ordered a fortress to be built in Mogador, named "Castelo Real de Mogador" but the Portuguese only stayed in Mogador for 19 years. Local people then controlled the site.During the 16th century, various powers including Spain, England, the Netherlands and France tried in vain to conquer Mogador. Ideally situated with regard to the trade winds of the North Atlantic, Mogador prospered in the triangular trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas 17th - 19th century.Goods and slaves from the sub-saharan Africa through the caravan trade passed through and Mogador had its own export of sugar and molasses from the middle ages to the 17th century. European cloth, Chinese tea was brought by the Europeans. It is said that Essaouira remained a haven for the anchoring of pirates. 18 th century The town revived with the Sultan Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah who let build the Scala fortifications and the port and create a prosperous environment for commerce and trade. Essaouira became a meetingplace of many cultures; the Arabs, the Jews ,the Amazigh and nearly a thousand Europeans (British, Danish, Dutch, French, Germans, Italians, Portuguese and Spanish) who had consulates in the Kasbah of the medina (the old town); Dasa Pahor notes a separately engraved cooperplate ma by Gerard Hulst VAN KEULEN (1733 - 1801). Place and Year: Amsterdam, [circa 1780]. printed as a Copper engraving on fine laid paper, contemporarily mounted upon original thick blue rag-paper; 63 x 52.5 cm (25 x 20.5 inches). Dasa Pahor Code: 64684 and we can locate only two institutional examples, at the Biblioth?ue nationale de France and the Netherlands? Nationaal Archief (The Hague). References: OCLC: 494813171 / Biblioth?ue nationale de France, d?artement Cartes et plans, CPL GE SH 18 PF110 DIV 4 P 9 D; Nationaal Archief (Den Haag), 4.VELH, no 80.; UNESCO World Heritage Site
Last updated: Nov 15, 2018